Investiture of the Captains Regent in San Marino – October 1, 2022

The Investiture of the New Captains Regent in San Marino is a public holiday in the country that takes place twice a year, on April 1 and October 1. The captain’s regents are the Republic of San Marino’s two heads of state. The Grand and General Council, the country’s legislative body, elects them every six months. The Regents are picked from opposing political parties and serve for six months. Every year on April 1 and October 1, the captain’s regents are invested. This custom dates back to at least 1243.

History of Investiture of the Captains Regent in San Marino

The regency was established in the first half of the 13th Century, and its function was to manage justice, a task comparable to that of magistrates. They were known as ‘consuls’ during that time — a term derived from ancient Rome. The Grand and General Council chose the first two consuls on December 12, 1243, for a six-month tenure that is still in use today.

The name of the institution began to evolve at the end of the 13th Century when one received the title of ‘captain’ and the other of ‘defender’ before becoming ‘captain’ and ‘rector’ in 1317. The higher class normally had one, and the working class had the other. Women were not allowed to take up public positions at the time. In 1972, a law was introduced to remove all barriers that barred women from holding public office. On April 1, 1981, Maria Lea Pedini-Angelini became the first woman to be named captain regent.

For the first time, two women, Vanessa D’Ambrosio and Mimma Zavoli were appointed captains regent on the same day, April 1, 2017, and served until October 1, 2017. San Marino will have the most female heads of state in the world as of April 1, 2020, after choosing its 18th female captain regent. It’s worth mentioning, however, that several other countries have had female heads of state for longer than the 18 captains regent’s combined, ten and a half years.

Investiture of the Captains Regent in San Marino timeline

13th Century
The Evolution of the Regency Name

The name of the regency institution begins to evolve at the end of the century.

1243
The First Captains Regent

The Grand and General Council choose the first two consuls on December 12 for a six-month tenure that is currently still in use.

1972
A Law Against Gender Barriers

A law is introduced to remove all barriers that barred women from holding public office.

2017
The First Female Captains Regent

For the first time, two women are appointed as captain’s regents on the same day.

Investiture of the Captains Regent in San Marino FAQs

Is there a passport for San Marino?

Passports issued to inhabitants of San Marino for overseas travel are known as Sammarinese passports.

Is San Marino a democratic republic?

San Marino is a multiparty democratic republic.

Why isn't San Marino part of the E.U.?

This is because the E.U. was not created with microstates in mind.

How to Observe Investiture of the Captains Regent in San Marino

  1. Share online

    The beauty of social media is that you can engage in events virtually. Use suitable hashtags to promote this century-old San Marino celebration on social media.

  2. Make a formal complaint

    If you are a San Marino citizen, you have three days to file any complaints or accusations against the new captain's regent. If charges are filed, they are officially investigated and brought before a judge.

  3. Travel to San Marino

    Visit San Marino on April 1 or October 1 to participate in the festivities. The Investiture of Captains Regent in San Marino can be seen from the Piazza della Liberta, just outside the Government Palace.

5 Interesting Facts About San Marino

  1. Abraham Lincoln

    The former president of the United States is an honorary citizen of San Marino.

  2. Unconditional San Marino political refuge provision

    Throughout the centuries, it has provided unconditional political refuge.

  3. No invasion lost

    Despite being invaded countless times over the years, San Marino has never lost an invasion.

  4. Oldest republic worldwide

    It is the world's oldest republic.

  5. Oldest Constitution

    San Marino is home to the world's oldest surviving national constitution.

Why Investiture of the Captains Regent in San Marino is Important

  1. It honors San Marinos traditions

    The ritual honors the country's centuries-old traditions. It's a means to preserve these traditions while also demonstrating pride in the country's democracy and freedom.

  2. It has a long and illustrious history

    This practice dates from 1243 and is based on a Roman Republic ritual. The election of two regents may appear weird at first, but the posts are mostly symbolic.

  3. It's rich in culture

    San Marino is rich in culture, from its traditions and landmarks to its cuisine. It is home to simple and delicious food that has flavors influenced by neighboring regions with its local herbs and ingredients.

Investiture of the Captains Regent in San Marino dates

YearDateDay
2022October 1Saturday
2023October 1Sunday
2024October 1Tuesday
2025October 1Wednesday
2026October 1Thursday
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