We are observing Language Movement Day on February 21. It is a day dedicated to honoring the sacrifices of those who fought for their language. The day is a national holiday in Bangladesh. It is also called Language Movement Day or State Language Day. The celebration commemorates the Bengali language movements and their martyrs. The day is observed globally to celebrate linguistic and cultural diversity. Also, West Bengal, an Indian state sharing borders with Bangladesh, celebrates the day. Shahid Dibash, or Bhasha Dibas, as it is known, has the same level of reverence and dedication in West Bengal too.
History of Language Movement Day
Language is a powerful tool that enables us to communicate easily with others. The bulk of our communication is done through verbal means. Thought to be as old as 1.8 million years, the early forms of language were primitive and action-based. Back then, communication was mainly intended to coordinate hunting, sharing food, finding mates, and collecting herbs. But as humans evolved, our intelligence improved dramatically. The language developed along with human civilizations. Spoken language began to flourish around 50,000 years ago. Although we can never be sure, as words do not leave any fossil records.
By around 3000 B.C., the first written languages were developed. Sumerian is generally considered the oldest written language in the world. Other ancient civilizations also witnessed the development of written languages like Egyptian, Sanskrit, Tamil, and Hebrew. These languages further developed into new regional dialects as human politics spread across the Asian and European continents. The Bengali language was derived from Magadhi Prakrit, a spoken language in 1000 A.D.
With over 300 million native speakers, Bengali is one of the most spoken languages in the world. After the end of the colonial era, the British were forced to leave the Indian subcontinent. Britain partitioned India into three dominions: India, East Pakistan, and West Pakistan. East and West Pakistan were once a single entity, with political power concentrated in West Pakistan. They had few ties with the Bengali language, whereas it was the major language of East Pakistan. Tensions between the two units erupted over the matter of official language. The Bengali Language movement started to resist the idea of Urdu as the only national language. Subsequent riots and conflicts resulted in police killing student protesters. The movements succeeded and paved the way for a nationalistic feeling that ultimately led to the formation of Bangladesh.
Language Movement Day timeline
Britain partitions India into India and Pakistan based on religion.
The Government of the Dominion of Pakistan ordains Urdu as the sole national language.
The students of the University of Dhaka and other political activists organize protests against the law.
After years of conflict, the Pakistan government grants official status to the Bengali language.
Language Movement Day FAQs
Who was the first language martyr?
Rafiquddin Ahmed was killed in 1952 during the Bengali Language Movement that took place in East Pakistan, which is currently the nation of Bangladesh.
Who are called language martyrs?
Abul Barkat, Abdul Jabbar, Rafiquddin Ahmed, Abdus Salam, and Shafiur Rahman are considered the five most important language martyrs in Bangladesh.
What is Bhasha Dibas?
Bhasha Dibas is the equivalent festival to Shahid Dibas or Language Martyrs’ Day. It is celebrated in West Bengal with the same level of reverence and enthusiasm.
How to Observe Language Movement Day
List all the languages
There are thousands of languages in the world with thousands of dialects. Try to create an extensive list of all the languages, their location, and birth years.
Share about language discrimination
Discrimination against language is still a big issue in many parts of the world. But the news is not getting the popularity that it needs. Try to spread such news and help raise awareness about language discrimination.
Try to learn another language
We all know at least one language. Learning another can be a task. Use this day to start learning another language.
5 Interesting Facts About Languages That You Should Know
Number of languages
There are 2,700 languages spoken all over the world with over 7,000 individual dialects.
Least spoken language
Busuu language is the least spoken language with only a handful of people left who know this language.
Around half of the world's population can speak two languages.
Country with the most number of languages
There are more than 840 languages in Papua New Guinea making it the country with the most number of languages in the world.
Sumerian is the oldest written language in the world followed by the Egyptian language.
Why Language Movement Day is Important
We love diversity
We love diversity and we love it even better when we can uphold unity in diversity. This is a perfect day to illuminate the importance of accepting language diversity and appreciating the beauty and importance of other languages.
It is a day to stop discrimination
Discrimination based on language is real and we need to act against it. This is the perfect day to bring such actions under one single movement.
It is a day to popularize the sacrifice of language martyrs
Thousands of people have died in the name of the language. This is a day to show our respect to those brave souls.
Language Movement Day dates